An embedded system can be described as a computer that performs functions in a unique electrical mechanical system. It is comprised of a computer’s processor memory, memory, as well as the common input and output devices. It’s usually found as part of a bigger device that has both electrical/electronic technologies & mechanical components. Real-time computing is a requirement for embedded systems because they are the main controllers of machine operation regardless no matter where they are located. These systems control a wide range of devices. This blog will let you learn more about embedded systems along with the advantages and disadvantages.


In contrast to being an all-purpose computer that can be used for various tasks, the embedded systems are designed to perform a specific task. Additionally, some of them have real-time performance limitations due to reasons related to safety and usability. Others may have weak or no desire to perform in order so that the hardware to lower cost. Many embedded systems are comprised of smaller components within a bigger device, which serves a more general goal. An embedded system inside an automobile has a distinct role as a subsystem within the vehicle itself. The instructions for programs designed specifically for the embedded system are known as firmware. They are stored as read-only memories or Flash memory chips. They operate with limited hardware integration components of computers like an insignificant screen, a non-existent keyboard, and very little memory.


Source: The Engineering Projects

components of Embedded Systems Programming



Sensors & Input devices

Actuators & output devices




The microprocessor is a processor that integrates the functions of central processing units on one IC. Microprocessors are a flexible register-based, clock-driven integrated circuit. As input, it receives binary data, process it according to the instructions that are stored within its memory and then outputs results.

It’s an IC which only contains one processor (Processing energy).

There are applications that perform tasks that are not defined, such as developing games or websites, editing photos and more.

They operate operating systems.


A microcontroller is a computer that is embedded in chip. Contrary to computers, which comprise many distinct parts, the microcontroller has every CPU (Processors cores) as well as memory and peripherals for input and output. This allows you to create systems that have small parts.

It is equipped with a CPU as well as RAM, ROM, and various other peripherals on one chip.

They are specifically designed to complete specific tasks. (i.e., cars, bikes, microwave)

They operate in bare metal


A peripheral device or peripheral is a device that acts as an auxiliary device to input information into or obtain information from a computer. Systems embedded in the computer communicate with the outside world via peripheral devices. Here are some an example of peripherals.

  • SCI, also known as Serial Communication Interfaces RS-232 the RS-422, RS-485 and so on.
  • Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
  • MMC (also known as Multimedia Card) (SD cards, Compact Flash, etc.)
  • Networks: Ethernet, Lon Works, etc.
  • Fieldbuses: CAN-Bus, LIN-Bus, PROFIBUS, etc.
  • Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare as well as Time Processing Units
  • Analog to Digital/Digital Analog (ADC/DAC)

Sensors & Input devices

Sensors are highly sophisticated devices that are typically employed to detect and respond to optical or electrical signals.


  • Sensor for temperature
  • Infrared (PIR) sensor
  • Touch sensor
  • Pressure sensor

Actuators & output devices

An actuator is one of the components of a machine responsible for controlling and moving the system or mechanism such as opening an air valve.


  • Electric motor
  • Screw Jack
  • Hydraulic Cylinder


A processor register, also known as a CPU register, is tiny storage locations for data which are essentially slices of the processor of a computer. Registers can hold an instruction or a storage address or any other type of data like a small sequence of characters or even a separate one. Many commands require registers in the instruction. For example, instructions can specify for the data of two distinct registers be merged and then put into a specific register.


A protocol is a common set of rules that allow electronic equipment to connect with the other. These rules define what kind of data may be sent and what commands are used to transmit data and receive it, and how data transfer is confirmed.


  • Inter-Integrated Circuit
  • SPI Serial Peripheral Interface
  • USART/UART: Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.

Embedded System Advantages

We will go over the many benefits of an embedded system, for example embedded system benefits.

  • Simple to produce more production.
  • Less expensive prices each piece of the resultant
  • It has only an only a few interconnections.
  • More stable
  • More reliability
  • Portable due to the small size
  • Low power consumption
  • Accurate results with better accuracy
  • More speed
  • To maximize resources like microprocessors and memory
  • It can withstand a vast range of environments.
  • It is less likely to repeat errors.
  • To provide real-time response
  • It is not user-friendly.
  • Not much data storage
  • Lesser redundancy
  • To run pre-planned programs to run user applications

Because an embedded system generally plays a role that is not changed its requirements, the requirements for operating system aren’t as burdensome.

Embedded System Dis-Advantages

There are certain limitations to embedded systems for example, as

  • Once embedded system is developed You are not able to alter, enhance or upgrade.
  • It is difficult to keep
  • It is difficult to create a backup of embedded files
  • It is necessary to reset every setting to avoid any issue with the system.
  • Troubleshooting is harder
  • It is more difficult to transfer data across systems to another systems.
  • Hardware limitations, due to its use for certain tasks
  • Power supply reliability is less durable.
  • Memory is limited and resources are not sufficient.
  • To require more development efforts to design an embedded system

Final Words

Embedded system industry is expected to grow rapidly, driven by continuous advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), deep learning, machine learning and the Internet of Things(IoT) development. Cognitive embedded systems will form centre of these trends, including the reduction of energy use, enhanced protection for devices embedded in cloud connectivity, mesh networks, deep learning applications as well as visualization tools that utilize real-time data. I am hoping that this information will assist in understanding the significance of embedded systems as well as its pros and cons advantages.

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